Surroundings of Władysławowo
In 1592 Sigismund III Vasa, the king of Poland and a devoted Catholic, inherited the throne of Protestant Sweden. A year later he set off to receive the Swedish crown, which happened only in February 1594 with some conditions attached. One month after that the king returned to Poland.
It is Poland’s northernmost cape, with two lighthouses located there. In the vicinity of the taller one (33 m height) there are three memorials. The first one was made of broken stone to commemorate the handing-over of Pomerania to the Polish Army on 10th January 1920. The monument was placed in a spot that had long been considered as the northernmost point of Poland.
In the years 1946-1956 the Polish Navy built 11 onshore Stationary Artillery Batteries (Polish abbr. BAS) equipped with caliber 152, 130 and 100 mm cannons, all with the aim of defending the Baltic coast. The last battery with 130 mm cannons was 34th Stationary Artillery Battery (BAS) built east of the Rozewie Cape.
In the rear of the west part of Chłapowo buildings, (today a district of Władysławowo), in an extension of Żaglowa Street, there is a military graveyard of the Red Army soldiers that died in 1945. There are 13 mass graves, but there are also tombstones that bear name plates.
In 1920 the Polish coast by the open Baltic was characterized by very poor transport system. This situation hindered economic growth and made the potential defense of the area difficult. At the same time, problems with transporting military supplies that were faced during the Polish – Soviet War in 1919-1921 proved how important the coast was for military purposes.
The day after Poland’s Wedding to the Sea, which was performed on 10th February 1920, General Haller arrived in Wielka Wieś (today Władysławowo).
His companion, lieutenant colonel Henryk Bagiński, fascinated by the beauty of the seaside scenery decided to buy some land there and start a little summer resort.
In the „Szotland” district of Władysławowo there is a memorial dedicated to those that died fighting the Germans in 1939 (Męczenników Wielkiej Wsi Street). It is an impressive boulder that bears a bronze military eagle and memorial panels in it. The place has been turned into a nice square, and its benches and greenery encourage some rest and contemplation of history.
During the construction of fortresses Wladyslawowo and Kazimierzowo
that one more complex of fortifications was erected. It was accidentally found during the construction works of the fishing port in Wielka Wieś (present-day Władysławowo). Various traces, and even prominent remains of past fortifications were found at the base of the Hel Peninsula then.
In the southern part of Władysławowo, in Gdańska Street (inter-regional road 216), there is a cemetery with graves of victims that died in 1939.There are 14 mass graves where the Polish Army soldiers that died at the battle of Wielka Wieś were buried.
On 9th September 1939 ground fights for the Hel Peninsula began. On this day German troops invaded Puck and headed for Swarzewo. There they fought a skirmish against Polish patrols, which made some reconnaissance and retreated to Wielka Wieś. This move made it possible to shorten the defense line and organize the forces better, as the number of Polish soldiers in the area was a mere 200.
In July 1939 three anti-landing batteries were created for the ground defense of the Hel Peninsula. Batteries No. 41 and 42 were positioned in the area of Jastarnia port, and battery No.43 – near the port in Władysławowo. Later, during the war, 44th battery was created and located on the breakwater of the fishing port in Hel.
The ambition to gain control over the Baltic’s waters as well as Polish-Swedish wars over king Vladislaus IV’s heritage led to the creation of the Polish Navy in the first half of the 17th c. The new fleet needed a new sea base, independent of Gdańsk and deeper than Puck. Therefore, a decision was made to build a naval port with defensive fortifications on the Hel Peninsula.
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